Basic Properties

Name – here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer – If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the menus located behind the small triangle.

Lens parameters

Use Physical Camera – when this option is checked VRAYforC4D’s Physical camera tag will affect to c4d camera.

Camera type – specifies the type of the camera:

  • Still camera – simulates a still photo camera with a regular shutter.
  • Movie camera – simulates a motion-picture camera with a circular shutter.
  • Video camera – simulates a shutter-less video camera with a CCD matrix.

Zoom factor – specifies a zoom factor. Values greater than 1.0 zoom into the image; values smaller than 1.0 zoom out. This is similar to a blow-up rendering of the image.

Distortion type – determines what distortion formula is used when the Distortion value is not zero:

  • Quadratic – this is the default distortion type. It uses a simplified formula that is easier to calculate than the Cubic method.
  • Cubic – this is the distortion type used in some camera tracking programs like SynthEyes, Boujou etc. If you plan on using one of these programs, you should use the Cubic distortion type.
  • Lens File – use distortion data from file.
  • Texture – use distortion data from texture.

Lens Distortion – specifies the distortion coefficient for the camera lens. A value of 0.0 means no distortion; positive values produce “barell” distortion, while negative values produce “pillow” distortion.

Lens description file – path to file with distortion data.

Lens distortion texture – path to texture with distortion data.

Vertical shift and Horizontal shift – allow the simulation of shift lenses for 2-point perspective. Changing these parameters is similar to applying a Camera correction modifier.

Vignetting effects – when this option is on, the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras is simulated. You can also specify the amount of the vignetting effect, where 0.0 is no vignetting and 1.0 is normal vignetting.

White balance presets – presets for different day time conditions.

White balance – allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. Note that only the color hue is taken into consideration; the brightness of the color is ignored.

Exposure

Exposure – when this option is on, the F-Stop, Shutter speed and Film ISO will affect the image brightness.

Film ISO – determines the film power (i.e. sensitivity). Smaller values make the image darker, while larger values make it brighter.

F-Stop – determines the width of the camera aperture and, indirectly, exposure. If the Exposure option is checked, changing the f-stop will affect the image brightness.

Shutter speed – the shutter speed, in inverse seconds, for the still photographic camera. For example, shutter speed of 1/30 s corresponds to a value of 30 for this parameter.

Fixed exposure increments

Fixed exposure increments – when this option is on, you can use physical camera as a real camera; all real camera works with not user defined value for f stop, iso and timing, but you can increase or decrease values with stop fraction. One stop define for the camera, half or double of light quantity for final shot,for example if you set f stop from 5.6 to 8 you will use half light for your shot.

Store exposure – this option can be used to optimize DOF and Motion Blur use, to use this you must use On first Fixed exposure increments. First you must find correct exposure with fixed increments, then turn on store exposure, then turn OnDOF or Motion Blur and now you can modify fstop or timing for sampling feature without exposure modification.

1 stop increment – 50% plus or minus.

1/3 stop increment – 33% plus or minus.

1/3 stop increment – 33% plus or minus.

Shutter angle – shutter angle (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.

Shutter offset – shutter offset (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.

Latency – CCD matrix latency, in seconds, for the video camera.

Sampling

MBlur on – turns on motion blur.

DOF on – turns on depth of field sampling.

Subdivision – determines the number of samples (rays) for calculating depth of field.

Bokeh effects – defines the shape of the camera aperture. When this option is off, perfectly circular aperture is simulated. When on, a polygonal aperture is simulated.

Blades number – Number of blades.

Blades rotation – defines the rotation of the blades.

Center bias – defines a bias shape for the bokeh effects. Positive values make the outer edge of the bokeh effects brighter; negative values make the center of the effect brighter.

Bokeh anisotropy – allows stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically to simulate anamorphic lenses.

Optical vignetting  – Controls the strength of the optical vignetting, also known as “cat’s eye” vignetting. This effect is due to the fact that the shape of the bokeh highlights resembles the shape of the aperture. As the distance to the optical axis increases, the bokeh highlights are progressively narrowed and begin to resemble the shape of a cat’s eye. The larger the distance from the image center, the narrower the cat’s eye becomes. Optical vignetting tends to be stronger in wide angle lenses and large aperture lenses, but the effect can be noticed with most photographic lenses.

Enable Aperture Map – Specifies a texture to define the shape of the aperture.

Map Resolution – Specifies the size of the Aperture texture.

Affects exposure – When enabled, the size and shape of the aperture specified in the Aperture Map Resolution affects the exposure of the final image.

Aperture Map – path to texture with aperture texture.

Example: Zoom factor

This parameter determines the zooming (In and Out) of the final image. It doesn’t move the camera forward nor backwards.

Exposure is onf-number is 8.0, Shutter speed is 60.0ISO is 200.0, Vignetting  is onWhite balance is white.

Zoom factor is 1.0

Zoom factor is 2.0

Zoom factor is 0.5

Example: Exposure Control – f-number (f-stop)

Note: All the images from the following examples are rendered using the Sun and Sky set with their default parameters.

This parameter controls the aperture size of the virtual camera. Lowering the f-number value increases the aperture size and so makes the image brighter, since more light enters the camera. In reverse, increasing the f-number makes the image darker, as the aperture is closed.

Exposure is onShutter speed is 60.0ISO is 200Vignetting is onWhite balance is white.

f-number is 8.0

f-number is 6.0

f-number is 4.0

Example: Vertical Tilt (Camera Correction)

Using this parameter you can achieve the so called “2 point perspective“. To have that done automatically, use the Guess vertical tilt button.

vertical tilt: Guess (2 point)

vertical tilt: -0.5

vertical tilt: 0.5

Example: Vignetting

This parameter controls the simulating the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras.

Vignetting is 0.0 (vignetting is disabled).

Vignetting is 1.0.

Example: White Balance

Using the white balance color allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have the specified color will appear white in the image. E.g. for daylight scenes this should be peach color to compensate for the color of the sun light etc.

Exposure is onf-number is 8.0, Shutter speed is 200.0ISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on.

White balance is white (255, 255, 255).

White balance is blueish (145, 65, 255).

White balance is peach (20, 55, 245).

Example: Exposure Control – Shutter Speed

This parameter determines the exposure time for the virtual camera. The longer this time is (small Shutter speed value), the brighter the image would be. In reverse – if the exposure time is shorter (high Shutter speed value), the image would get darker.

Exposure is onf-number is 8.0ISO is 200Vignetting is onWhite balance is white.

Shutter speed is 60.0.

Shutter speed is 30.0.

Shutter speed is 125.0.

Example: Exposure Control: Film Speed (ISO)

This parameter determines the sensitivity of the film and so the brightness of the image. If the film speed (ISO) is high (film is more sensitive to the light), the image is brighter. Lower ISO values mean that the film is less sensitive and produces a darker image.

Exposure is onShutter Speed is 60.0, f-number is 8.0Vignetting is onWhite balance is white.

ISO is 400.

ISO is 800.

ISO is 1600.

Example: Depth Of Field (DOF)

To enable the DOF effect you need to turn on the Depth-of-field option in the Sampling rollout of the physical camera. The effect is most strongly seen when the camera is close to some object, like when doing a “macro” photo. For a strong DOF effect, the camera aperture must be open wide (i.e. small f-number value). That may lead to a very burnt and bright image, so to preserve the same illuminosity over the whole image, the shutter speed must shortened. And at last but not at least the focus distance determines which part of the scene will be actually on focus. To get the focus near, you would need a small value and reverse – higher value for far focus.

Exposure  is onf-number  is 1.0, Shutter speed is 4000.0ISO  is 200.0, Vignetting  is on.

DOF is off.

DOF is onFocus distance is 400.

DOF is onFocus distance is 4000.

Example: Motion Blur (MB)

To enable the motion blur effect, you need to turn on the Motion blur checkbox in the Sampling rollout of the physical camera. The amount of the motion blur is determined by the speed of the moving object itself as well as the Shutter speed setting of the camera. Long shutter speeds will produce more motion blur, as the movement of the object is tracked over a longer in time. In reverse, short shutter speeds will produce less motion blur effect. Keep in mind that to preserve the same illuminosity over the whole image, the f-number value has to be corrected as well.

Note that in the example the far object is moving quicker than the near one, which cases the difference in the motion blur effects.

Exposure is onISO is 200.0, Vignetting is on.

Motion blur is off.

Motion blur is onf-number is 16.0Shutter speed is 30.0.

Motion blur is onf-number is 8.0Shutter speed is 125.0.

Example: Distortion

The difference between the two types of distortion is slightly visible. The Cubic type should be used in some camera tracking programs like SynthEyesBoujou, etc.

Distortion is 1.0Distortion type is Quadratic.

Distortion is -1.0Distortion type is Quadratic.

Distortion is 1.0Distortion type is Cubic.

Distortion is -1.0Distortion type is Cubic.