The camera rollout controls the way the scene geometry is projected onto the image. Note that if you use the V- Ray Physical Camera in your scene, most of the parameters in this section are ignored, with the exception of some of the motion blur parameters (those on the right-hand side of the dialog).

Options

Type – the cameras in VRAYforC4D generally define the rays that are cast into the scene, which essentially is how the scene is projected onto the screen. VRAYforC4D supports several camera types: Standard, Spherical, Cylindrical (point), Cylindrical (ortho), Box, Fish eye and Warped spherical. From this list you can select the type of the camera. The parameters in this section are ignored, if you are rendering from a VRay Physical Camera.

  • Standard – this is a standard camera.
  • Spherical – this is a spherical camera which means that the camera lenses has spherical form.
  • Cylindrical-Point – with this type of camera all rays have a common origin – they are cast from the center of the cylinder. In the vertical direction the camera acts as a pinhole camera and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
  • Cylindrical-Ortho – in vertical direction the camera acts as an orthographic view and in the horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.
  • Box – the box camera is simply 6 standard cameras placed on the sides of a box. This type of camera is excellent for generation of environment maps for cube mapping. It may be very useful for GI too – you can calculate the irradiance map with a Box camera, save it to file and you can reuse it with a Standard camera that can be pointed at any direction.
  • Fish eye – this special type of camera captures the scene as if it is normal pinhole camera pointed at an absolutely reflective sphere which reflects the scene into the camera’s shutter. You can use the Dist/FOV settings to control what part of the sphere will be captured by the camera. The red arc in the diagram corresponds to the FOV angle. Note that the sphere has always a radius of 1.0.
  • Warped spherical – another spherical camera with slightly different mapping formula.
  • Orthogonal – this is a orthogonal camera
  • Pinhole – pinhole camera imitates AR default camera, so with use of it there will be no shift due to lens of Vray Physical Camera.
  • Spherical Panorama – spherical panorama camera output 360 panorama view in equirectangular.
  • Cube 6×1 – cube 6×1 camera output 360 panorama view in 6 x 1 cube maps.

Height – here you can specify the height of the Cylindrical (ortho) camera. This setting is available only when the Type is set to Cylindrical (ortho).

Auto-fit – this setting controls the auto-fit option of the Fish-eye camera. When Auto-fit is enabled VRAYforC4D will calculate the Distance value automatically so that the rendered image fits horizontally with the image’s dimensions.

Distance – this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. The Fish-eye camera is simulated as a Standard camera pointed to an absolutely reflective sphere (with a radius of 1.0) that reflects the scene into the camera’s shutter. The Distance value contorts how far is the camera from the sphere’s center (which is how much of the sphere will be captured by the camera). Note: this setting has no effect when the Auto-fit option is enabled.

Curve – this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. This setting contorts the way the rendered image is warped. A value of 1.0 corresponds to a real world Fish-eye camera. As the value approaches 0.0 the warping is increased. As the value approaches 2.0 the warping is reduced. Note: in fact this value controls the angle at which rays are reflected by the virtual sphere of the camera.

Override FOV – with this setting you can override the Cinema4D FOV angle. This is because some VrayforC4D camera types can take FOV ranges from 0 to 360 degrees, whereas the cameras in Cinema4D are limited to 180 degrees.

V-Ray FOV – here you specify the FOV angle (only when Override FOV is turned on and the current camera type supports FOV angle).

Use Active Camera Settings – settings of active camera will be used instead of this tab.

Use Clipping Planes – turns the clipping effect on.

Clip Near – distance from camera to clip in front of it.

Clip Far – distance from camera to clip in back of it.

Depth of field

These parameters control the depth of field effect when rendering with a standard Cinema4D camera or with a perspective viewport. The parameters are ignored if you render from a VRay Physical Camera view.

Depth of field – turns the depth-of-field effect on.

Aperture – this is the size of the virtual camera aperture, in world units. Small aperture sizes reduce the DOF effect, larger sizes produce more blur.

Center bias – this determines the uniformity of the DOF effect. A value of 0.0 means that light passes uniformly through the aperture. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the rim of the aperture, while negative values concentrate light at the center.

Subdivision – controls the quality of the DOF effect. Lower values are computed faster, but produce more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render. Note that the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC sampler as well as on the chosen Image sampler.

Bokeh effect – defines the shape of the camera aperture. When this option is off, perfectly circular aperture is simulated. When on, a polygonal aperture is simulated.

Sides num – this option allows you to simulate the polygonal shape of the aperture of real-world cameras. When this option is off, the shape is assumed to be perfectly circular.

Rotation – specifies the orientation of the aperture shape.

Anisotropy – this option allows the stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically. Positive values stretch the effect in the vertical direction. Negative values stretch it in the horizontal direction.

Motion blur

Motion blur – turns motion blur on.

Duration (frames) – specifies the duration, in frames, during which the camera shutter is open.

Interval center – specifies the middle of the motion blur interval with respect to the Cinema4D frame. A value of 0.5 means that the middle of the motion blur interval is halfway between the frames. A value of 0.0 means that the middle of the interval is at the exact frame position.

Bias – this controls the bias of the motion blur effect. A value of 0.0 means that the light passes uniformly during the whole motion blur interval. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the end of the interval, while negative values concentrate light towards the beginning.

Geometry samples – this determines the number of geometry segments used to approximate motion blur. Objects are assumed to move linearly between geometry samples. For fast rotating objects, you need to increase this to get correct motion blur. Note that more geometry samples increase the memory consumption, since more geometry copies are kept in memory.

Prepass samples – this controls how many samples in time will be computed during irradiance map calculations.

Subdivision – determines the quality of the motion blur. Lower values are computed faster, but produce more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render. Note that the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC sampler as well as on the chosen Image sampler.

No MB Camera – motion blur will not affect camera movement.

Stereoscopic

Stereoscopic – enables the rendering of a stereoscopic image

Eye distance – the distance between the two virtual stereo cameras. The cameras are always focused at the camera target for the current view.

Specify Focus – When enabled, allows a point of focus to be defined.

Focus Distance – Defines the point of focus.

Focus method – Specifies the focus method for the two views. Possible values are:

  • None – Both cameras have their focus points directly in front of them
  • Rotation  – Achieves the stereoscopic effect by rotating the left and right views so that their focus points coincide at the distance from the eyes where the lines of sight for each eye converge (known as fusion distance).
  • Shear – The orientation of both views remains the same, but each eye’s view is sheared along the Z axis so that the two frustums converge at the fusion distance.

Interocular method  – Specifies how the two virtual cameras will be placed in relation to the real camera in the scene.

  • Shift Both – Both virtual cameras will be shifted in opposite directions at a distance equal to half of the eye distance.
  • Shift Left  – The virtual cameras are shifted to the left so that the right camera takes the position of the original camera. The left camera is shifted to the left at a distance equal to the eye distance.
  • Shift Right  – The virtual cameras are shifted to the right so that the left camera takes the position of the original camera. The right camera is shifted to the right at a distance equal to the eye distance.

View – Specifies which of the stereoscopic views will be rendered.

  • Both – Both views will be rendered side by side.
  • Left  – Only the left view will be rendered.
  • Right  – Only the right view will be rendered.

Adjust Resolution – When this option is enabled, the resolution of the final image will automatically be adjusted. For example, if rendering both views of a 640×480 image, V-Ray will render one image with a resolution of 1280×480 that includes both images side by side.

Shape Map Mode – Specifies the mode of operation for the shade map.

  • Disabled – No shade map will be used during rendering.
  • Render shade map – Causes a Shade Map be created and saved in the file specified in the shade map file field.
  • Use shade map – Uses information from the file specified in the shade map file field.

Reuse Threshold – This value affects the rendering with shade maps. Lower values make V-Ray use less of the shade map and more real shading. This will slow down the rendering but might be required if rendering with the default value produces artifacts. When using a relatively large depth-of-field effect, increasing this value might help to speed up the rendering.

Load SMap File  – Loads the shade map from the file.

Save SMap File  – Saves the shade map to the file.

32 Bit Colors – When enabled, color data is stored in full 32-bit in the shade map file; otherwise it is stored as 16-bit half-float per color component (red/green/blue).

VRST Compression – Specifies whether the data in the shade map file is compressed as a ZIP file, or has no compression.

EXR Compression – Specifies whether the data in the shade map file is compressed as a ZIP file, or has no compression.

Exclude – Excludes some of the objects in the scene from being rendered with the shade map. All excluded objects will be rendered without the acceleration from shade maps. This is useful for object like glass windows or large flat mirrors where the stereo effect is needed for reflections/refractions in the material.

 

When DOF and motion blur are both enabled, they are sampled together using the higher of the two Subdivs parameters.

Example: Camera Types

The images below show the difference between the different camera types:

Standard camera

Spherical camera

Cylindrical camera

Orthographic cylinder

Box camera

Fish-eye camera

Example: Camera Types Explained

This example shows how the rays for different camera types are generated.
The red arcs in the diagrams correspond to the FOV angles.

Standard

Spherical

Cylindrical (point)

Cylindrical (ortho)

Box

Fish-eye